Purpose of the research: Cognitive stimulation (CS) is defined as activities that involve cognitive processing, usually conducted in a social context and often in a group. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a personalized-adapted CS program in older adults on global cognition, neuropsychological constructs, activities of daily living (ADLs), and mood.
Materials and methods: The randomized controlled single-blind trial involving 337 participants (235 women and 102 men) ≥ 65 years of age in a Primary Care centre classified participants into 4 groups: 101 for the no deterioration (ND) group; 100 for the subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) group; 108 for the level deterioration (LD) group and 28 for the moderate deterioration group. The intervention consisted of a personalized CS adapted program for 10 weeks. Follow-up assessments were conducted post-intervention, and at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was global cognition measured by the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The secondary outcomes were measured by the Barthel Index, the Lawton and Brody Scale, the Goldberg Questionnaire (anxiety sub-scale) and the abbreviated Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale.
Results: The intervention showed a tendency of improvement on global cognition and different cognitive functions for groups with no deterioration or level deterioration. The group with moderate deterioration improved in anxiety.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated benefits in global cognition, different cognitive functions, semantic fluency, IADLs and anxiety. The most benefits are given in the intermediate groups, SCI, and LD. Moreover, the intervention works by increasing the benefits in the different phases.
Keywords: Cognitive stimulation; Dementia; Global cognition; Mild cognitive impairment; Neuropsychological constructs; Subjective cognitive impairment.